Summarize the text in one sentence using 5 to 75 words (30 to 35 words). You have 10 minutes to summarize each passage. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage
1. Read the passage and summarize it in your words-
A beetle is slower than a mouse, which is slower than a rabbit, which is slower than a cheetah… which is slower than an elephant? No! No other animal on land is faster than a cheetah — the elephant is indeed larger, but slower. For small to medium-sized animals, larger also means faster, but for really large animals, when it comes to speed, everything goes downhill again. For the first time, it is now possible to describe how this parabola-like relationship between body size and speed comes about.
The model is amazingly simple: The only information that it must be ‘fed’ with is the weight of a particular animal as well as the medium it moves in, so either land, air or water. On this basis alone, it calculates the maximum speed that an animal can reach with almost 90% accuracy. “The best feature of our model is that it is universally applicable,” says the lead author of the study, Myriam Hirt of the iDiv research centre and the University of Jena. “It can be performed for all body sizes of animals, from mites to blue whales, with all means of locomotion, from running and swimming to flying, and can be applied in all habitats.” Moreover, the model is by no means limited to animal species that currently exist, but can be applied equally well to extinct species.
2. Read the passage and summarize it in your words-
Researchers studied three generations of mice born to mothers that were exposed to either diesel exhaust particles or urban air particle concentrate during pregnancy. The research team compared cells from the lungs of the first, second and third generations of offspring to three generations of control offspring that were not exposed to the pollutants. All generations descended from mothers exposed to diesel exhaust particles had an abnormal increase in a type of immune cell, a common marker for allergy. Offspring of pollutant-exposed ancestors also showed elevated levels of interleukin proteins that are involved in regulating the immune system, which are a marker of asthma risk. However, the increase was more prominent in the first and second generations, suggesting that inherited risk factors lessen in further removed generations.
Environmental pollutant exposure before birth caused epigenetic changes in the offspring’s DNA that affect how genetic code is used (DNA methylation). The researchers found that atypical DNA methylation led to transgenerational asthma risk due to abnormal changes in a type of immune cell called dendritic cells. Dendritic cells play a key role in the development of asthma in early life.
Seeing the changes in DNA methylation and gene expression that affect the health of future generations (epigenetic transgenerational inheritance) may help doctors start to recognize asthma as not only an inflammatory disease but “to a large extent, an epigenetic disease,” explained Alexey Fedul a v, corresponding researcher on the study. “This approach may allow entirely new therapeutic strategies.”