PTE writing study material summarizes written text practice samples passages. Read the passage below and summarize it in one sentence using 5 to 75 words (30 to 35 words). You have 10 minutes to summarize each passage. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage
1. A failure to maintain this balance has been implicated in a host of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.
“The inhibitory neurons migrate from specific areas of the embryonic brain to the region where excitatory neurons are being produced,” said senior author In-Hyun Park, associate professor of genetics and associate professor in the Child Study Center. “What we did is to fuse these two areas and watched the process unfold.”
The Yale team used human pluripotent stem cells to grow an organoid called the human medial ganglionic eminence, which produces inhibitory neurons and plays a crucial but brief role in early development of the cortex. By merging this structure with another that produces excitatory neurons they could track the migration of the inhibitory cells, which provide a crucial check on excitatory neurons.
Understanding the process will not only help researchers understand how the human brain evolved but shed light on how imbalances contribute to many neurodevelopmental disorders.
For instance, excess activity by excitatory neurons has been implicated in schizophrenia while too much inhibitory neuronal activity may contribute to depression, Park said. The imbalance has also been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders he said.
2. If a leadership candidate seems more excited about being “the boss” who’s in charge of others, they’re probably not the best person for the job. Leadership is different from management, said Lynch; potential leaders need to recognize the differences and be open to the challenges.
“Leaders aren’t caught up with the notion of people working for them,” said Dale Falcinelli, chairman of the advisory council at Lehigh University’s Baker Institute for Entrepreneurship. “They’ll have the passion and drive to get where they need to go, and they’ll know that to get there, they have to work for and through other people.”
“[Leaders] need to be genuinely interested in growing the skills of others, not just in delegating tasks or managing processes,” Lynch added.
Lynch noted that effective leadership coaching should include a focus on self-awareness and emotional intelligence, empathy, managing change, and the importance of mentoring others to be strong leaders.